Bitte benutzen Sie diese Kennung, um auf die Ressource zu verweisen:
|Titel:||Mögliche Prädisposition einer Sekten-, Kultmitgliedschaft|
|Zusammenfassung:||Empirische Forschungsbeiträge zur möglichen Prädisposition einer Sekten-/ Kultmitgliedschaft sind international kaum vorhanden. Die vorhandenen Beobachtungen, Erfahrungen und Aussagen zu diesem Thema sind zwar sehr zahlreich, oft aber auch sehr widersprüchlich. So behaupten z.B. die einen, daß Kultmitglieder vermehrt aus dysfunktionalen Familien kommen würden oder daß eine Psychopathologie vor dem Beitritt vorlag. Im Gegensatz dazu sind andere der Meinung, daß Kultmitglieder aus ganz normalen, funktionierenden und behütenden Familien stammen und daß keineswegs eine Psychopathologie vorlag. Durch die hier vorliegende Arbeit sollte eruiert werden, ob es so etwas wie eine Beitrittsdisposition nun tatsächlich gibt und wenn ja - welche Faktoren dafür verantwortlich sein könnten.
Alle Daten der hier durchgeführten Untersuchung stammten von Familien, die sich mit der Bitte um Beratung an den Autor wandten, weil jeweils ein oder mehrere Angehörige sich zu einem Kultbeitritt entschlossen hatten.
Die Basis dieser Untersuchung stellte ein halbstandardisierter, anamnestischer Fragebogen dar, der jeweils vor der ersten persönlichen Begegnung an die betroffenen Familien, Ehepartner und/oder Freunde geschickt wurde. Ziel dieses Fragebogens war, möglichst ausführliche Informationen über die Biograpie des Kultmitglieds zu erhalten, um eine effektive Beratung durchführen zu können.
Es handelte sich also um Fremdbeurteilungen in Form einer schriftlichen Befragung. Die so zustande gekommenen quantitativen und qualitativen Daten bezogen sich auf insgesamt 110 Pbn im Alter von 12 bis 50 Jahren.
Dies ist -zumindest für die BRD - die bisher größte Stichprobe zu diesem Thema.
Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie machen u. a. deutlich, daß sich Menschen mit entsprechender Lebensgeschichte vermehrt auch bestimmten Kultkategorien anschließen.
Zum Teil liegen prädisponierende Faktoren für einen Kultbeitritt vor. Allerdings wird auch deutlich, daß der Grund für einen Beitritt nicht auf nur einige wenige, prägnante Faktoren zurückzuführen ist, sondern daß jeder Kultbeitritt als multikausales Gefüge verstanden werden sollte.
So konnte nachgewiesen werden, daß die Mehrzahl der Personen unmittelbar vor ihrem Beitritt mehrere zeitgleiche und scheinbar unlösbare Probleme zu bewältigen hatten (z.B. innerhalb der Familie, in ihrer Beziehung, in der Schule und/oder im Beruf). Dem dadurch vermehrt vorhandenen Belastungsdruck in den verschiedenen Lebensbereichen - und der subjektiven Valenz, die diesen Begebenheiten zugeschrieben wurde - begegneten diese Personen mit einem Kultbeitritt, der vordergründig sicherlich Erleichterung versprach.|
The contribution to empirical research of a possible predisposition for cult involvement is rarely available on an international scale. The current observations, experiences and statements made to this theme are indeed countless but are also often extremely inconsistent. So it is claimed, for example, that many cult members come from dysfunctional families or that a psychopathological disorder was already existent before joining a cult. In opposition to this include those who hold the opinion that cult members come from completely normal, functional and protective families who clearly have no history of psychopathological illness. The proposed work should be ascertained whether such a disposition to joining a cult actually exists and if so, which factors could be responsible. All the data of conducted inquiries included in this study were derived from families who consulted the author for advice because one or more of their family members decided to join a cult. The basis of this inquiry represented a semi-standardised questionnaire of case histories which was sent to the affected families, partners and/or friends before the initial consultation. Hence, the questionnaire was an external assessment in the form of a written examination. It managed to achieve the quantitative and qualitative data of a sample of 110 cult members aged between 12 and 50 years. This is (at least for the Federal Republic of Germany) the largest sample ever conducted in relation to this theme. The following focal points should be thoroughly examined: The family background and the personality of the cult members, as well as the situational conditions and the psychological state just prior to joining the cult. The most significant results are as follows: ? The majority of persons, who were single before joining the cult, came from either middle-class or upper-middle-class families and were aged between 21 and 25 years. In addition, they were raised with several brothers and sisters in small provinces and rural towns (astonishingly, from the total amount surveyed, only 3 individuals were without siblings). The standard of education was comparatively high. Most of the parents were married. ? The majority of persons suffered simultaneously from several burdening experiences before joining a cult. Further, most of them experienced a dysfunctional family background and were confronted with difficult life situations (critical life events) immediately prior to joining a cult. ? Only a small amount of persons indicated a psychopathological disorder. ? Approximately half of those surveyed were discribed as being altruistic, sensitive and lonely. Only a quarter of those surveyed were found to be naive, unstable, introverted, idealistic and/or denoted a lack of self-awareness. ? According to slightly more than half of the cult members (after individual statments were made), the decisive factor for joining a cult was the desire for a binding doctrine. Only a small amount regarded self-realisation or discontentment as a motive for joining. ? Specific differences in gender could be proven. An increasing number of female cult members came from small towns and Protestant families who rarely attended church. These women viewed their family situation as incriminatory and the communication as restrictive. While the women were more dissatisfied with their life circumstances, the male cult members were described as being increasingly introverted. Furthermore, the male members were more interested in the doctrine/ideology of the respective grouping. ? Further, it succeeded by presenting a profile of 3 cult categories: Christian-Fundamentalist groups, Guru Movements and Psycho-Cult/Esoteric Movements. In the following, the profile of these 3 cult categories shall be presented in more detail. Those who joined a Christian-Fundamentalistic cult, were mainly aged between 21 and 25 years. A majority reported to have attended church on a regular basis and were reared in families who showed a lack of communicative competence. Further, they often regarded a sense of community, a binding doctrine and the search for a meaningful life as being significant reasons for joining. Those who joined the Guru Movements, were aged between 16 and 20 years. A majority of these members were men and first-born children who mainly attended secondary school without having completed their matriculation. Regular church attendance took place. Fewer persons were reported to have experienced incriminatory family situations whilst more claimed to have experienced competent communication within the family. They were considered as being neither altruistic nor depressive, but rather introverted. Further, they claimed to be searching more for a binding doctrine and less for a meaningful life. The members of the alleged Psycho-Cults and Esoteric Movements entered these groups at a notably older age, between 26 and 30 years. These movements were predominately made up of female members who rarely attended church and came from split families. Further, they experienced increasingly burdening family situations and suffered from problems relating to work or school immediately before joining a cult. They were not regarded as being introverted but were described as having egoistic personalities. In addition, they considered that neither the search for community nor the need for a binding doctrine were relevant means for joining a cult. These results helped to gain an initial insight into a largely unsearched area. Furthermore, they contributed towards the clarification of the specific biographical and thematic backgrounds which may suggest a predisposal to cult membership. This examination has clearly demonstrated the complexity involved in joining a cult and should therefore be taken into consideration when working with ex-cult/cult members and their relatives. Both sides should be given equal consideration - not only the cult (referred to as, The Lock´) and its internal dynamics, but also to the person (referred to as, The Key´) and his/her individual needs. The results of this study clearly suggest, among other factors, that persons with similiar life histories are increasingly confined to specific cult categories. Some pre-disposed factors are responsible for joining a cult. However, it also becomes clear that the reason for joining a cult is not purely generated by a few concise factors but rather by multiple causes. It could be proven that the majority of persons had to simultaneously cope with several and unsolved problems immediately before they joined a cult. For instance, within their family, their relationships, at school and/or at work. Because of the increasing existing pressures in the various areas of life, and because of the subjective valency which was ascribed to these occurrences, the persons involved in this report were joining cults which were undoubtedly promising solutions and a sense of superficial relief.
|Enthalten in den Sammlungen:||PsyDok|
Dateien zu dieser Ressource:
|Praedisposition.pdf||2,04 MB||Adobe PDF||Öffnen/Anzeigen|
Alle Ressourcen in diesem Repository sind urheberrechtlich geschützt.